Wednesday, September 13, 2017

Tim Price Bloggin For D'Addario Woodwinds- - The Art Of Bassoon Reed styles


 

 This is a omnibus I use to add focus on reed making-kind of like a hands on reed adjusting and focus- You might know it and know the end results- But worth it for...review.

Learning how to scrape bassoon reeds can be a long process as much of how you learn will be based on trial & error.

The purpose of this section on Bassoon reeds is to help people get a better handle and understanding on the adjustment and the techniques of coming to grips with these double reed issues
Dig this- it just takes some basic common knowledge issues. Plus don't be afraid to make a mistake.

You can either use a file or a knife which must be kept very sharp using a sharpening stone for scraping the reed. When scraping the reed insert a bassoon plaque to support the reed and your knife / file. When scraping bassoon reeds only take a minute amount of cane off at a time and then try playing the reed before doing more editing. This is important as once you have scraped the reed you cannot reverse what you have done!

Below are some very generalized areas of the reed in which you can scrape to hopefully achieve the desired effect. The following points are very generalized as each reed is very different to the one before due to factors including the density of cane, when the cane was picked, direction of the grain, etc... and so how you scrape each reed and how it reacts will vary.
               

Generalized Effects After Scraping this Area:

A: Freer & flatter low register
B: Softer reed
C: Flatter low register
D: Easier tonguing & easier ppp in high register
E: Less resistant low register & overall flatter
F: More freedom & flexibility BUT weaker "sound" & stability
G: Makes sound brighter, more flexibility & easier tonguing  


Tips

  • When played loudly the reed doesn't play E or C# in the stave in tune. The E and / or C# dip flatter. After making sure the reed is balanced (see above) and the 2nd wire is tight clip off a very, very small amount of the tip of the reed off at a time. Then try the reed playing those two notes very loudly, continuing to clip until you no longer have a flat & unstable E.

    For a  bassoon reed to work at it's best (vibrate at its optimum level) it needs the be correctly balanced. This means that the reed should have the same thickness of cane on both front and back blades and on each half of both blades (see diagram below).
    If you are having a problem with your reed(s) the first step should be to check that it is correctly balanced as this quite often will solve the main problems with the reed.
    Below are 2 methods to use to check if the reed is balanced and if it is not, find where the issue is and correct it. For all of the tests you will need a very sharp reed making knife or diamond coated file to correct the issues.
    The following tests involve cane being removed from the reed. Therefore it is important to note that once you have removed the cane you can not put it back, thus only take a little cane off at a time! NOTE; So much info on these is compiled here. This is some ideas- techniques that are tried and true. I sure didn't invent these- I'm passing info/ pictures and thoughts out there.

    Bubble Test

    In this test you are aiming to have the opening at the tip of the bassoon reed, the 'bubble', symmetrical at all times. Place your index finger on one side of the bassoon reed and your thumb on the other so that they are both in the center back of the blade (so that if the bassoon reed wasn't there your thumb and index finger would be touching). Now gently press the fingers towards each other so that the reed starts to close at the tip (Try to keep the pressure of your finger and thumb equal).
    Ideally, when you are applying pressure to both sides the bubble at the tip of the bassoon reed will close equally on both sides so that when quite a lot of pressure is used both blades at the tip will touch at the same time. If they do, you need not do any more to that part of the bassoon reed.

    If the reed doesn't close symmetrically then note the side of the blade where the tip has the larger asymmetrical opening. Then go directly towards the back of the reed until you are in line with your finger and remove a small amount of cane from this area. Then redo the test with your finger and thumb in the same place and remove more cane if necessary until the reed begins to close more symmetrically and is thus more balanced.
    Repeat the whole process, each time moving your finger and thumb closer to the tip of the bassoon reed and then start at the back of the reed again but on the side of the reed and work forward again until your fingers have touched every area if the bassoon reed blade.



  •  Testing the reed ;

    This test uses a bassoon plaque & is very simple to carry out.

    Place the plaque in between the blades of the bassoon reed and then pull the plaque gently to one side of the reed so that you can see the longer edge of the plaque (diagram, right). Once you have done this you will be able to compare the edges of the blades of the reed. If one area is thicker than it is on the blade directly opposite from it, use the reed making knife or diamond file to remove cane from the thicker side. Once the one side has been checked pull the plaque to the other side and repeat the same process.

    This is the end of this info based blog- I'm trying to keep this info on tap so you younger folks have a " go to" to answer immediate question and TRY to get a result. The availability of books and help is becoming low so ...if this helps you that's WHY I did it...Have fun and don't give up- this world needs more bassoonists- Tim Price


    - Here are 2 sources of amazing information I love and drew much knowledge from- find them and study ok?!

    Although making your own bassoon reeds sounds impossible, this is not the case. I suggest with the help of a teacher- and these two books you try to get started as soon as you can.
    Bassoon Reed Making by Mark Popkin and Loren Glickman is one of the top bassoon reed making books available. Topics covered: bassoon reed making from tube to finished reed, instrument repair and maintenance and approaches to bassoon playing.
    Basic Reed-making, A Basic Technique by Christopher Weait -The book goes from tool selection all the way through making and finishing reeds from tube to final reed. An excellent book used by every bassoonist.









Thursday, September 7, 2017

Tim Price Bloggin' For D'Addario Woodwinds- STUFF TO SHED.... looking within.

Tim Price Bloggin' For D'Addario Woodwinds- STUFF TO SHED.... looking within.

~Improvising means creating music that is spontaneous, of the moment, and uniquely your own. So think of it as the instrument becomes a process of self-discovery, finding out what your music really sounds like. You develop a period of looking within, stripping away the excess and listening for the simple voice that really is our own. It’s there, listen for it.

Being able to improvise on I GOT RHYTHM changes appears much more as a puzzle or study that must be negotiated than as an opportunity look within and reach for new sounds you hear. Improvising means creating music that is spontaneous, of the now, and your own. It will not get played if you yourself don’t play it, and try. You have to focus your practicing for maximum progress towards creating a powerful forward motion as a player.

Add personal guidance of a master teacher and artist, and you’re poised to grow as a musician and as a performer.  Plus how to focus practicing of improvising on the essential elements,the actual substance of what to play and how to develop it in your personal style, and dealing with practicing of specific vocabulary.

It's what I call, what to shed! Then you got to understand jazz is part of culture. Bird, Prez,Basie,Pee Wee Russell, Roland Kirk, Duke, Hawk and all those giants who gave something to culture. What did they have? They had the the building blocks of jazz improvisation. MELODY ! Then guide-tone lines, and melodic Rhythm. Real world building blocks of jazz improvisation. In a word- BASICS that last for your career. Just some thinking on subjects we all love and are close to our agenda





 

Living a life of purpose reflects who you are deep inside, your beliefs, values and passion for living. It is about following your heart and doing what you love to do with passion and purpose. This may initially feel overwhelming and go too "deep" but that's exactly where you need to go - deep into your heart, beyond the busy, superficial day-to-day chores and demands of life. Beyond the fast paced day of the modern mom who typically deals with her career, various children's activities, computer viruses, proverbial household cleaning, - overall role of superwoman who never had or has had a chance to do some real soul searching for real meaning in her life. 

Despite the many resources of self-help tools available today via magazines, books, tapes, videos, and seminars, many still feel unfulfilled and lacking purpose in themselves, family and career. What ever happened to just getting together- making some coffee and playing some standards ad blues.Life is about choices - good, bad, happy, unhappy, purpose filled or void. It is important to intentionally and passionately seek to pursue joy, fulfillment and purpose despite the situations or people who may seem to be trying to take it away from you. Your choices should be reflective of who you are and what you believe in vs. the standards and beliefs of someone else.

Are you really hearing the music- or going for just who's popular?

 


 

The below...handwritten example- is a set of hybrid scales to try on So What-Impressions changes ;

You might like them- LISTEN.

Each person holds unique and very individualized gifts. Allow yourself to really explore your current and past skills - even some you may not even be aware of yet. But also....Recognize them, write them down and then think of how you could integrate your most compelling skills into an area of your life now. See you next week- Thanks for reading this blog- hope you dig the shed- Tim Price
 
   






Tuesday, August 29, 2017

Tim Price Bloggin' For D'Addario Woodwinds- BIRD LIVES!





Bird Lives! Interesting how something can stay in your mind lifelong. Each person has been touched by the genius of Charlie Parker in different ways. So many different inspiring stories I've heard and I've read. Not to mention all the amazing music. I always wish I could of heard Bird live, also wish I could of heard him on tenor live as that's something Don Lanphere spoke of to me a lot.

 


Around 1970… I saw this movie in Cambridge Massachusetts called "Murmur or the heart".. there is some nice Bird playing in the soundtrack, and the movie itself.. I thought I'd bring it to a few peoples attention- whether or not they know about it or have any interest in checking out the movie, I've seen it on and off on YouTube too. But in any case now you know about it.


The other aspect of Charlie Parker that always stuck in my mind… was his interest to study with Edgar Varese. That always stuck in my mind, had it materialized one can only imagine were music would've went. He was obviously more than familiar with Varese. What drove the point home even further, and I think about this a lot, was at one point saxophonist ( and one of pioneers of the jazz oboe) Dick Hafer had relayed a very interesting story. Dick Hafer known Parker, from various things that he did with Woody Herman ( Bird with the Herd) and of course just being on the scene at that time.Dick told me the story about a conversation that he was a part of with Bird and Varese after a gig, hanging in NYC. Dick also told me Bird dug Stefan Wolpe It seems Charlie Parker had a real interest in those free forms and expanded composition directions combining a structure and freedom together. Hafer was also a woodwind player-who played or oboe and English horn as well as saxes, flute and clarinet. He's on Mingus records like " Black Saint and The Sinner Lady". ( there's various double reed solos on Anthony Ortega records & some dub's that Dick gave me that never made it onto the vinyl.) it seems like as history has it that Birds life was cut short sadly and this project never materialized. Many times I think of what could've happened had this went down. Where could of this music would've went? Talk about imagining the sound right?





Basically I heard from another artist from the same era named Gil Melle that Varese was looking forward to this with Parker. It is a known fact that sadly never materialized. Many of us who understand what both men were about musically- it's kind of overwhelming to think that that kind of point of departure never happened. For what it's worth-Dick Hafer was a friend of mine who is from the same hometown is me. My original saxophone and flute teacher knew him-hence the connection. When I first moved to New York in 1973 I would go to jam sessions on Ave A to sit in with Dick and Joe Chevadone on trombone.He repeated this same story to me when home visiting his brother in Reading, Pa after he spent the night sitting in with Al Grey and me.
To have heard a story like this come right out of someone's mouth in front of you was mind blowing- I thought I would pass it along again as food for thought and also document something I heard from somebody who was on the inside, like Dick Hafer. Something pretty deep, sad it never happened. Thanks for reading this.
BIRD LIVES!

Tim Price Blogging For D'Addario Woodwinds August 2017

Thursday, August 24, 2017

Tim Price Bloggin' For D'Addario Woodwinds- IN THE NAME OF TRANE




In the name of Trane....in the spirit of the great artist John Coltrane I'm very proud to be part of a very select number of musicians in the Philadelphia jazz project that pays tribute yearly to this great master.

Last year I played directly across the street in the park from the Coltrane House in Philadelphia. Once with my own trio- and later in the day with Sam Reeds tenor madness. Sam's band contains some of the most profound saxophone players in the Philadelphia area, jazz legends like Sam Reed or Charlie Cunningham or George Barron or Larry McKenna, Julian Presley, Gilberto Cruz in addition to so many others in the rhythm section like Philly drummer Jeffrey Johnson and more. ( Larry is not on this gig- by the way- take note) Below is the historic ...COLTRANE HOUSE in Philadelphia, Pa.



This year Sam's band is playing at the Clef Club September 20 at 7 o'clock for this event. It's a beautiful event and everybody really gets to blow and stretch out and play-different guys will be featured throughout the gig as well in a quartet or trio fashion as well as Sam's saxophone ensemble with rhythm section. George Baron and I are playing a quartet segment of the show and playing " Soul Trane" and  " 26 -2 ". Julian Presley is going to be playing an amazing version of Duke Ellington's " In a sentimental mood"… Just to give you some teasers. 


 This is a gig that you're not gonna want to miss, it's worth the drive even if you're coming from Baltimore and New York, what the heck why don't I just throw Copenhagen or Miami in as well! LOL😎 The focus is the music and love of all things Trane. We are having a ball too- stop by!






These is the kind of things I'm talking about, that are of the ultimate important musically in a level that steps out of just the normal and approaches some great jazz- played by people who have played this art form for decades. There's a big difference if you come and hear something like this musically then let's say going to a jazz festival and hearing some of the same old stuff that is shopworn. With that in mind some of these players have roots that grew up with people actually Morgan and Jimmy Heath. Charlie Cunningham is almost 90 and he knew Trane. Charlie also played in the 70s with Philly Joe Jones the great drummer. Below is Charlie and me playing at last years festival!



I'll be saying more about this prestigious event cause I'm very proud to be a part of it but also bring it to the worlds attention in these weekly blogs. These are things that should be being talked about and they're also a great form of respect to a master like John Coltrane.

Also- credit and respect and love to our friend and source of great forward motion Homer Jackson. It wouldn't be happening without you sir.


      I'll be keeping you posted-thank you for reading this and I see you all next week.

       In the name of Trane indeed!  ~ Tim Price




 














 

Wednesday, August 16, 2017

Tim Price Bloggin' For D'Addario Woodwinds- AND THERE'S MORE !






~ In today's world as a creative musician, teacher, recording artist and student you got to learn to hang in there. Music is a beautiful thing, something very important to life and all within. But just like anything else, nobody gives you something for nothing.

You have to understand that...
luck is where your lifelong preparation will join the opportunity. It's not easy either- don't expect because you can play " Giant Steps" or know the inner world of the " Creston Sonata" or have played every bar in the Jersey Shore that you deserve anything.


Before anything, you must love what you do. As Charles Bukowski said," You gotta have the guts." Do what you do and do it to the absolute best of your ability. Bukowski also said, " It’s no good quitting, there is always the smallest bit of light in the darkest of hells." This life can be a roller coaster. Sometimes you will make money,maybe great money. Often very little money and will struggle to get by. A strong work ethic is needed, as well as a strength of will. You also will have to be prepared when opportunity appears. Again- HARD WORK.The ethos behind lateral action is creativity coupled with productivity as the route for success, which also means creatively looking at our productivity. Perhaps sitting and squeezing out every drop of inspiration by sheer force isn’t the best way to get results.Like any productive creative process it’s all about balance and finding a way. The picture below- Is me with Philly jazz royalty Sam Reed- Sam is one of the legends in Philly jazz- we play with Phila Jazz Project a lot and he has played with everyone. One of the true tenor legends in this life. Great arranger too.

Nobody is entitled anything, remember that, it's HARD WORK to make a living as a musician. You must embrace the music with the pursuit of excellence.You earn it every cent you make. You'll get there by experience, and we ALL pay dues. These are things only time and a two thousand stupid gigs will teach you , or teaching a few days of fourth grade students for a few years. Don't complain-learn from every situation you find yourself in. We're only human- accept criticism without taking it personally. If you have an open mind, you'll learn and grow. You will never know all there is to know,always will be something new to learn.

Know this is a beautiful thing music, but it's also a business.Hang in there-it's no good quitting and your not entitled, but you have a vision in mind. Don't cheat yourself out of something you love.

Back in the day...As a teenager I heard a tenor saxophonist ~

~ The tenor players name was- Billy Mitchell! I saw him through a dirty bar room window in my home town in Reading, Pa as a kid. He wa splaying with trombonist Al Grey.That left a huge impression on me as a young player. Every week I'd go stand
outside & look thru the dirty glass window on 7th street ( which is where the railroad is...Eg-Reading Railroad for all you Monopoly fans ) And dig the bands. One time I heard Billy Root with Al Grey.Another time this guy FRANK HAYNES, who was like a Trane -grits type line player with a chitlins' Gene Ammons sound.
Frank later recorded with Lee Morgan & Grant Green.

AS time passed...I started to work on the next street at the C.P Club on
weekends and Sundays. ( C.P means Colored Political ) So I got
to meet some of those sax players while I was still in high school.We'd play a lot of soul music with jazz instrumentals as covers. It gave all of a chance to play but also meet some of these guys at an early age. After all- jazz did not start with " Giant Steps" and " Love Supreme". Years later at Berklee, in my apartment building, there was a guy who lived in my building in Boston Gary Hammond. Came off the road in 1970 to study in Boston..he just left " The Ice Breakers". Hammond later played with Patton and at times still does. Gary is a unsung player and a sweetheart of a guy. I
love his playin'. He's on some Johnny Hammond Smith records and some Barbara
Donald stuff on Cadence records. The picture below is yours truly and BETHLEHEM . . a Philly singer- artist of sonics that I have the pleasure to play with- and is a world class artist- Listen for her ok.

I got to mention two guys from Philly who played in that bag-one was the late great Rudy Jones. He never left Philly. He and I used to play a lot with Don Patterson in late 70's. Another Philly guy who never got credit was Vance Wilson. Great tenor player. 


I always get concerned about these guys because they were the backbone of tenor playing. Like Bergonzi said " The cats you never heard of". They helped me in many ways...I get concerned because these environments like the clubs etc are not around anymore. Even the audiences have changed. And believe me these bands and players were an education unto themselves. I worry that young players will miss the essence of
Fred Jackson , Marvin Cabell, Rudy Rutherford,Rudolph Johnson, Tom Russell, Weasel Parker, Leo Johnson in Newark,Miles Donahue,Sue Terry, Sam Phipps, Arnie Krackowski, Bll Saxton in NYC, Patience Higgins and so many more.With the loss of the record industry and the influx of commercial sales- things have gotten worse.Yes- the " net" is somewhat of a help but the players I'm talking about are of another era. These guys have paid some real dues.Listen for them. AND THERE'S MORE....

TILL NEXT WEEK, Keep a light in the window and a chilled cucumber vodka martini ready for me- Tim Price









Tuesday, August 8, 2017

Tim Price Bloggin' For D'Addario Woodwinds- “Bebop, Swing, and Bella Musica" ( book review)



A MUST!! Fascinating read of some of the players and people that make this music go round.

In this 383-page reference treasure, famous singers such as Frank Sinatra and Tony Bennett are profiled along with lesser known but important contemporary improvisers such as Frank Catalano, Jerry Bergonzi, and Joey Calderazzo. The authors point to several examples of Sinatra’s and Bennett’s contribution to the civil rights movement as well as their commitment to playing a vital role in the integration of jazz.

Celebrating the Italian contribution to jazz are the stories of many Italian-American musicians whose talents and determinations have enriched one of America’s greatest art forms. This book profiles musicians such as Tony Bennett, Joe Lovano, Flip Phillips, Louis Prima, Frank Sinatra, and Lennie Tristano, and also features original interviews with Louie Bellson, Sam Butera, Buddy DeFranco, Johnny Frigo, Buddy Greco, and Bucky Pizzarelli—who, in the pursuits of their craft, survived the immigrant experience, the Great Depression, poverty, and other personal tragedies. As Grammy Award-winning saxophonist Joe Lovano said, “Jazz has a specific root— the African American experience—but it’s also about the branches of the tree. Jazz is about cultures coming together, inspiring each other, which is what makes it so beautiful.”



"What a joy to see so many musicians I've worked with receive their due. Dal Cerro and Witter have composed a chronicle of history, love, joy and music that started in countless Italian American homes. A great musical read!"  —Gene DiNovi, bebop pianist and composer


In their recent book “Bebop, Swing, and Bella Musica: Jazz and the Italian American Experience,” co-authors Bill Dal Cerro and David Anthony Witter document “the many cultural barriers Italian-American musicians faced in the pursuit of the American Dream.”  They also postulate that the importance of melody and harmony to those of Italian extraction make for a common bond in their interpretation in any music, be it opera, popular music, or jazz.

A perfect summer read- for the student of jazz and music who wants to get a broader picture of the depth of the magnitude of the music.Louie Bellson, Lennie Tristano, Tony Bennett,

Buddy DeFranco, Flip Phillips and Joe Lovano: These are just some of the
hundreds of musicians of Italian descent whose talents have enriched jazz.

But Bebop, Swing and Bella Musica is more than just a book about music, this book documents the cultural barriers which Italians faced in their pursuit of the American Dream. It also profiles musicians like Joe Marsala who played an active role in the integration of jazz music.
Bebop, Swing and Bella Musica features original, in-depth interviews with many artists who overcame poverty, illness and other personal tragedies. In the end, they drew strength from the musical traditions of their ancestors, bringing Italian passion to America’s greatest art form. 

Do check this out...Highly recommended. Tim Price - D'Addario Woodwinds blogger ;











Wednesday, August 2, 2017

Tim Price Bloggin' For D'Addario Woodwinds-ALL THE THINGS YOU ARE. . . A blog about a innovative timeless human being- Joe Lovano.



ALL THE THINGS YOU ARE. . . A blog about a universal innovative human being- Joe Lovano.

  To function creatively in an art form like jazz one must think creatively and also have a reference. Joe Lovano is an amazing example and benchmark of that. I've known Joe since we were students at Berklee around 1970! The rapport and the simpatico within the music was always there and flowing. The beautiful part of it is all of us are still playing and involved in something we love. As time has passed evolution growth within the art form and also growth and development with the internals of the music are moving forward constantly. This blog this week is just some things I'm going to share about Joe… That you might not read anywhere else… And also some things that I feel strongly about.



When you hear Joe Lovano, you hear Joe Lovano. 
Joe has very deep roots in the music, he grew up in a musical family with the father that not only knew all the musicians, but knew them personally and had played and jammed with them. That is quite evident and I have always seen that as something that was passed on to Joe at early age-that love and fearlessness of just getting together and playing. Letting the music flow and letting the personalities in the music blend in many sonic directions within the notes and tones of the people creating it. 

Jazz is a peoples music-jazz is the original social media and always will be. 

The reality happens when the music is played. Everything else after that becomes evident and also becomes part of an atmosphere among friends and fellow travelers.NOTE; The book below, About the Italian-American players- this is a must read! Joe is in there of course and if you want a book that you can't put down- this is it. I love it!



This last Sunday we spent a lot of time talking about instruments and also doing some playing and hanging. I strongly urge you if you haven't already to listen to some of the many projects and recordings that Joe has done in his life. Each one contains a very special energy and a very special message the only Joe could do-it's like hearing somebody's voice on the telephone. Not only is he a tower of power on the tenor saxophone but he plays Tarogato, Alto saxophone, soprano saxophone, clarinets and straight alto saxophone and straight tenor saxophone ( made by Sax Dakota) as well as drums. And more!
In playing with Joe Sunday, jamming as Joe played the drums it reminded me of what a great drummer he also is. There are many saxophone players who are great drummers there's also many saxophone players who are incredible piano players to. Don't worry that will be subjects of other blogs in the future to help you get a focus on that dear reader. The authenticity of Joe's drumming is very inspiring also when somebody plays drums at a level like that it also enhances what they're doing on their woodwinds. That expansive creativity , and that search is something that makes your main instrument even stronger.

Google Joe's name and look at the multitude of things he's done from Woody Herman to Paul Motian to projects with Michael Brecker .The list is endless-you might find some recordings where he's playing alto clarinet you might find some recordings where he's playing straight tenor saxophone. Then again you might find recordings where he's playing standards with his own special touch. This is a person who has to play music- A special person who hears things in the music and moves forward and plays them! 
The above picture is Joe playing my vintage Vito LeBlanc C melody saxophone, and the below is yours truly trying Joe's vintage Conn C melody saxophone. Something in the sound of these horns from the improvisational orchestral spectrum  is inviting.

 The picture to the right is Joe's dad Big T Lovano- a Cleveland legend and the key element in Joe's saxophonistic agenda. You can see on Big T's tenor the Selmer Varitone attachment, on the bell keys. Players like Sonny Stitt, Lou Donaldson and Eddie Harris were involved with these sounds as well- a huge part of a vital thriving jazz era. Joe's dad was a great tenor player!
Joe's wife Judi is one of the premier sounds and innovators in jazz singing and voice. She literally is a sound that is so instrumentally reassuring and inspiring that you have to just sit back and say-this is ...a true individual artist. She is also a vivid artist whose work on canvas no matter pastel or oil. Multidimensional indeed for her. It's a beautiful thing when you see a deep family laying down a benchmark like this-seek out the recordings that Joe has with Judi, and also her own recordings,   you're in for a real treat. Again these are things that came from Joe's family in Cleveland-values and being raised by parents who love and care. I had the pleasure of hearing big T,  Joe's dad in the 70s in Cleveland. He had a huge saxophone sound and always swinging.

Check out- on you tube; Joe Lovano - Bass Space from SOLOS: the jazz sessions...If you want to hear some solo Tarogato- and some of the most beautiful sonic shapes and ideas.



 So there you have it, a small part of what one of the most unique and spiritual artists on today scene is about-put in the words by me who has known him since 1970.
Joe's contribution to this music and also the brotherhood that exists truly is, the sound of joy. Thank you-stay tuned I'll see you next week. ~ Tim Price